Responsible business and individual differences: Employee externally-directed citizenship and green behaviors

Wiernik, B. M., Ones, D. S., Dilchert, S., & Klein, R. M.
In A. McWilliams, D. E. Rupp, D. S. Siegel, G. K. Stahl, & D. A. Waldman (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of corporate social responsibility: Psychological and organizational perspectives (pp. 123–155).
Oxford University Press

Corporate social responsibility is increasingly regarded as an important performance domain for organizations. Critical to implementing responsible organizational policies and initiatives, however, are the behaviors by individual employees at all levels of the organizational hierarchy. This chapter reviews the nature, structure, and dispositional antecedents of individual-level responsible business behaviors contributing to organizational CSR efforts. It focuses on two domains of employee responsible—externally directed citizenship behaviors (OCB-X) and employee green behaviors. Their divergent conceptualizations, measures, and dispositional antecedents are reviewed. Four major limitations pervade the literatures on OCB-X and employee green behaviors, and consequently hinder progress on understanding the individual-level (micro) foundations of CSR. Suggestions and directions for future research are offered to improve scholarship, understanding, and applications involving these constructs.

Counterproductive sustainability behaviors and their relationship to personality traits

Dilchert, S.
International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 26(1), 49-56.

This article introduces the concept of ‘counterproductive sustainability behaviors’ (CSB) as a novel expression of counterproductive work behaviors (CWB). It presents a short measure of CSB that applies the construct of counterproductivity to employee behaviors in the environmental sustainability domain. Personality assessments were administered to three independent samples— employed students, experienced employees, and job applicants—to investigate the relationship between personality and CSB (self-reports and other-rated), and to compare results to those obtained in the prediction of traditional CWB.

Environmental sustainability at work

Ones, D. S., Dilchert, S., Wiernik, B. M., & Klein, R. M.
In D. S. Ones, N. Anderson, C. Viswesvaran, & H. Sinangil (Eds.)
The SAGE handbook of industrial, work and organizational psychology: Vol. 3. Managerial psychology and organizational approaches (2nd ed., pp. 351–373).

this chapter, we discuss environmental sustainability in and of organizations. Specifically, we describe integration of environmental sustainability goals into business operations, draw a distinction between environmental and social responsibility, and encourage the use of the term socio-environmental responsibility when both are referenced. We highlight organizational proenvironmental initiatives as the primary means to achieve environmental performance and outcomes in organizations. We then turn to the role that employees play in environmental sustainability of organizations. In this context, both green jobs and pro-environmental behaviors are covered. Differences between pro-environmental behaviors and employee green behaviors are noted. The latter are conceptualized within the broader context of employee job performance models (Viswesvaran & Ones, 2000). Drivers and correlates of individual-level pro-environmental behaviors are reviewed to provide guidance to research and practice. We conclude by discussing ways in which HR can shape environmental sustainability in organizations.

Multiple domains and categories of employee green behaviors: More than conservation

Ones, D. S., Wiernik, B. M., Dilchert, S., & Klein, R. M.
In V. K. Wells, D. Gregory-Smith, & D. Manika (Eds.)
Research handbook on employee pro-environmental behaviour (pp. 13–38).
Edward Elgar.

To effectively promote employee pro-environmental behaviour and appropriately research the antecedents and consequences of different types of green behaviours, there is a need for clear conceptual definitions of employee green behaviours and an organising taxonomy of the diverse array of behaviours that can be performed. This is the aim of this chapter. We define employee green behaviours and describe how they fit into general models of job performance. Then, we describe a comprehensive taxonomy of employee green behaviours. Next, we discuss the features of available measures of employee green behaviours. Finally, we discuss how considering the full array of employee green behaviours can enhance organisational human resource management (HRM) practices that promote environmental sustainability.

Individual antecedents of pro-environmental behaviors: Implications for employee green behaviors

Wiernik, B. M., Ones, D. S., Dilchert, S., & Klein, R. M.
In V. K. Wells, D. Gregory-Smith, & D. Manika (Eds.),
Research handbook on employee pro-environmental behaviour (pp. 63–82).
Edward Elgar.

Environmental degradation is ultimately driven by harmful actions performed by individuals (Stern 2000). Achieving environmental sustainability thus requires changing individuals’ behaviour to be more environmentally responsible (Maloney and Ward 1973). As organisations aim to improve their institutional environmental performance, they must improve the individual environmental performance of each of their employees. Effective management of employee environmental performance, however, requires understanding why employees perform positive and negative green behaviours and how these drivers can be leveraged most effectively using human resource management (HRM) tools. In this chapter, we review research on the individual-level factors that promote and inhibit environmentally relevant employee behaviours. We examine research on knowledge-based and attitudinal drivers of pro-environmental behaviours, as well as the influence of demographic characteristics and stable psychological individual differences. Finally, w discuss research on the effectiveness of alternative types of behavioural interventions aimed at improving individuals’ contributions to environmental sustainability and how organisations can leverage individual antecedents to enhance employee green performance.

Sustainability: Implications for organizations

Dilchert, S., Wiernik, B. M., & Ones, D. S.
In S. G. Rogelberg (Ed.),
The SAGE Encyclopedia of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (2nd ed.).
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
(2016, October)

Sustainability refers to an organization’s ability to deliver enduring performance and thus continue to exist over time. In this regard, performance refers not only to a company’s financial results. Sustainability applies to a wide range of organizations (e.g., businesses, not-for-profit, non-governmental organizations) and encompasses performance in the economic/financial, social, and environmental domains. This conceptualization of sustainability—which includes the notion that the three different aspects of organizational performance are interconnected and equally important for long-term survival of an organization—has been described as the “triple bottom line.” Over the last three decades, research in the organizational sciences as well as applied practice has focused on the social aspect of organizational performance, such as employee welfare, community outreach, and charitable involvement. Most recently, climate change and ensuing societal awareness have triggered increasing attention on the environmental dimension of organizational performance and have resulted in a growing movement focused on environmental sustainability within industrial-organizational psychology.

Age and employee green behaviors: A meta-analysis

Wiernik, B. M., Dilchert, S., & Ones, D. S.
Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 1-15.

Recent economic and societal developments have led to an increasing emphasis on organizational environmental performance. At the same time, demographic trends are resulting in increasingly aging labor forces in many industrialized nations. Commonly held stereotypes suggest that older workers are less likely to be environmentally responsible than younger workers. To evaluate the degree to which such age differences are present, we meta-analyzed 132 independent correlations and 336 d-values based on 4676 professional workers from 22 samples in 11 countries. Contrary to popular stereotypes, age showed small positive relationships with pro-environmental behaviors, suggesting that older adults engaged in these workplace behaviors slightly more frequently. Relationships with age appeared to be linear for overall, Conserving, Avoiding Harm, and Taking Initiative pro-environmental behaviors, but non-linear trends were observed for Transforming and Influencing Others behaviors.

مدیریت منابع انسانی برای توسعه پایدار

Jackson, S. E., Ones, D. S., & Dilchert, S. (Eds.); شهرین ستوده (Translator)
مدیریت منابع انسانی برای توسعه پایدار [Managing human resources for environmental sustainability].
Teheran, Iran: اسمان نگار.

در جهان امروز، هر گونه کسب و کاری مستلزم توسعه فرهنگ مسئولیت پذیری اجتماعی و پاسخگویی به جامعه با رویکرد چگونگی جهت گیری فعالیتهای مسئولانه  به همراه تولید ثروت است. در واقع این موضوع به معنای رفتارهای تجاری همه ذینفعان اعم از سهامداران، مشتریان و کارکنان که در شخصیت منابع انسانی در سازمانها و بنگاههای تولیدی و خدماتی ظاهر می­شوند، ناشی می­شود که به این سئوال یکایک آحاد جامعه پاسخ می­دهند که: آیا کسب و کار شما در خدمت رفع چالشهای اجتماعی قراردارد؟!

Pro-environmental behavior

Ones, D. S., Wiernik, B. M., Dilchert, S., & Klein, R. M.
In J. D. Wright (Ed.),
International encyclopedia of the social and behavioral sciences (pp. 82-88).
Oxford, UK: Elsevier.

Environmental sustainability is one of the most pressing issues facing societies today. Employees play a key role in contributing to organizational environmental performance. This article describes the domain of employee green behaviors (pro-environmental behaviors at work), distinguishes them from related constructs, provides an overview of determinants, and reviews interventions designed to support them.

The well-rounded, green MBA

Dilchert, S.
The MBA Series – Guest Articles by Leaders in Business Education.

The MBA Series – Guest Articles by Leaders in Business Education.
What are the lessons we want our future leaders to experience before they take the helm of some of the world’s most impactful organizations?

Age and environmental sustainability: A meta-analysis

Wiernik, B. M., Ones, D. S., & Dilchert, S.
Journal of Managerial Psychology, 28, 826-856.

Research has shown that individuals of different ages hold different environmental attitudes and perform environmental behaviors of different kinds and to varying degrees. The strength and direction of age-effects observed across studies has been inconsistent, however. This study examined the relationship between age and a variety of environmental sustainability-related psychological variables using meta-analytic techniques.
Methodology: Relationships between age and environmental concern, environmental values, attitudes toward environmental behaviors, environmental awareness, environmental knowledge, environmental motives, environmental intentions, and pro-environmental behaviors were examined. Data from relevant studies between 1970 and 2010 were meta-analyzed to determine the magnitudes of relationships between age and environmental variables, and to investigate whether effects generalize across studies.
Findings: Most relationships were negligibly small. Small but generalizable relationships indicated that older individuals appear to be more likely to engage with nature, avoid environmental harm, and conserve raw materials and natural resources.
Value: Stereotypes about age-differences in environmental sustainability are commonly held in organizations. If work and organizational psychologists are to encourage and help individuals to be more environmentally responsible at work, understanding how age affects these efforts is imperative. By meta-analytically estimating age-differences in environmental sustainability variables, the present study helps to dispel erroneous stereotypes and guide organizations to implement effective environmental interventions.

Measuring, understanding, and influencing employee green behaviors

Ones, D. S., & Dilchert, S.
In A. H. Huffman & S. R. Klein,
Green organizations: Driving change with I-O Psychology (pp. 115-148).
New York: Routledge.

In this chapter, we first highlight evidence that environmental sustainability and responsibility are increasingly valued by many corporations. Second, we delineate environmental sustainability constructs at both the organizational and individual levels of analysis. At the organizational level, we distinguish environmental performance from social responsibility, and highlight how each is related to organizational financial performance. At the individual level, we distinguish between general pro-environmental behaviors and employee green behaviors. We also discuss how employee green behaviors relate to constructs such as employee engagement, task performance, organizational citizenship behaviors, counterproductive work behaviors, and organizational tenure. Third, we describe a taxonomy of employee green behaviors, noting functional and motivational differences among categories. Fourth, we review person-based approaches (recruiting, staffing) and intervention-based approaches (training, motivational interventions) that can be used to influence employee green behaviors in organizations. We conclude by highlighting streams of employee-focused research that will contribute to improving environmental sustainability of organizations.

Environmental sustainability at work: A call to action

Ones, D. S., & Dilchert, S.
Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 5, 444-466.

As world economies and organizations transform to minimize, mitigate, and neutralize their environmental impact and adapt for environmental sustainability, industrial and organizational psychologists are uniquely positioned to aid in these efforts. Industrial and organizational (I–O) psychology has a central role to play and a duty to contribute to organizational greening initiatives. In making our case, we first describe how economic activities, organizations, and workplaces of today are in the midst of unprecedented change in terms of their impacts on and relations with the natural environment. To ensure conceptual clarity, we then delineate environmental sustainability constructs that are relevant in work settings and distinguish them from related concepts (e.g., social responsibility). We also provide an overview of psychological contributions to environmental sustainability and note that so far there is limited I–O psychological research and application. We conclude by describing ways in which I–O psychologists can contribute.

Environmental sustainability in and of organizations

Dilchert, S., & Ones, D. S.
Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 5, 509-517.

We note that the current intellectual, social, and economic milieu has led to general acceptance of environmental sustainability as one of the most important issues of our time. Environmental sustainability is a big idea, and it is in the air (Gladwell, 2008). Few industrialorganizational (IO) psychologists disagree. However, there are many different ideas on the what, where, and how our field can contribute. We review facilitators, drivers, and barriers to environmental sustainability of organizations. We also discuss the ways in which cultural and international research can strengthen sustainability research and practice. In order to make a meaningful difference and positive environmental impact, IO psychologists and HR practitioners need to focus on their unique skills and influence organizational environmental sustainability by designing and shaping work, workplaces, and workforces.

Measuring and improving environmental sustainability

Dilchert, S., & Ones, D. S.
In S. E. Jackson, D. S. Ones, & S. Dilchert (Eds.),
Managing human resources for environmental sustainability (pp. 187-221).
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Wiley.

A thorough understanding of how organizational activities can be managed in environmentally sustainable ways requires input from organizational and behavioral scholars and practitioners and needs to be based on individual and organizational level measurement. At the individual level, the degree to which employees contribute to or detract from environmental sustainability can be observed, measured, and influenced. At the organizational level, corporate environmental performance can be conceptualized and measured to help manage the triple bottom-line (Elkington, 1998, Savitz & Weber, 2006). The goal of this chapter is to highlight some of the ways that environmental sustainability has been conceptualized and measured at both levels, review approaches to positively impact environmental sustainability at the individual level, and summarize important variables that relate to it at the organizational level. It is hoped that this review will increase the knowledge base on and understanding of those issues, and that it will aid industrial and organizational psychologists in their efforts to improve environmental sustainability in organizations and their workforces.

Employee green behaviors

Ones, D. S., & Dilchert, S. (2012).  
In S. E. Jackson, D. S. Ones, & S. Dilchert (Eds.),
Managing human resources for environmental sustainability (pp. 85-116).
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Wiley.

The overall objective of this chapter is to describe individual variability in employee behaviors that relate to environmental sustainability work settings. To achieve this goal, we first define a broad category of behavior that we have come to refer to as employee green behavior. Second, we then detail a taxonomy of employee green behaviors that is intended to describe the content of employee green behavior categories and define a construct of individual level environmental sustainability in work settings. Third, ‘we address the connections between employee green behaviors and model of individual level performance. Fourth, we offer guidance on how the framework presented in this chapter can be used in human resources management practice and research applications. We conclude by addressing construct validity questions about the model of employee green behaviors.

Environmental sustainability and organization sensing at Procter & Gamble

Biga, A., Dilchert, S., McCance, A. S., Gibby, R. E., Oudersluys, A. D.
In S. E. Jackson, D. S. Ones, & S. Dilchert (Eds.),
Managing human resources for environmental sustainability (pp. 362-374).
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Wiley.

This case study provides a brief overview of P&G’s sustainability efforts in general and illustrates how the company uses organizational surveys as a pulse check on employee engagement and its link to environmental sustainability behaviors in the workplace.

Human resources responsibilities: Frequent flyer radiation exposure

Barish, R. J., & Dilchert, S.
Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 22, 361-369.

At the high altitudes that are the domain of commercial airliners, passengers are exposed to cosmic radiation at an intensity that is hundreds of times greater than at ground level. Such radiation exposure represents a risk for individuals who fly frequently as part of their job. Business travelers who fly at least 85,000 miles (137,000 km) per year are likely to receive radiation exposures that exceed the regulatory limit established for members of the general public exposed by proximity to medical or industrial radiation facilities. Their exposures will not, however, exceed the higher level allowed for radiation workers. Human resource managers need to identify those employees who fly frequently on company business or due to a company-initiated relocation (e.g., expatriate assignment), classify them as radiation workers, and ensure compliance with the regulatory requirements for providing risk education and exposure assessment for such workers. Failure to do so may incur potential liability for radiation-related health problems, particularly in the case of pregnant employees where the embryo or fetus is also at risk.