Counterproductive sustainability behaviors and their relationship to personality traits

Dilchert, S.
International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 26(1), 49-56.

This article introduces the concept of ‘counterproductive sustainability behaviors’ (CSB) as a novel expression of counterproductive work behaviors (CWB). It presents a short measure of CSB that applies the construct of counterproductivity to employee behaviors in the environmental sustainability domain. Personality assessments were administered to three independent samples— employed students, experienced employees, and job applicants—to investigate the relationship between personality and CSB (self-reports and other-rated), and to compare results to those obtained in the prediction of traditional CWB.

Counterproductive work behaviors

Mercado, B. K., Dilchert, S., Giordano, C., & Ones, D. S.
In D. S. Ones, N. Anderson, C. Viswesvaran, & H. Sinangil (Eds.)
The SAGE Handbook of Industrial, Work and Organizational Psychology: Vol. 1. Personnel psychology and employee performance (2nd ed., pp. 109–211).

The scholarly literature that has investigated CWB is as rich and varied as the behavioral domain it addresses. Although this body of research is extensive, there remain many important literature gaps. In this chapter, we seek to provide a fundamental understanding of the nature, assessment, and nomological network of CWB. We also highlight emerging opportunities to contribute to this research domain, thereby catalyzing future research. Our hope is that readers will depart from this chapter with answers as well as new questions.

Family interference with work and its relationship with organizational citizenship and counterproductive work behaviors

Mercado, B. K., & Dilchert, S.
International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 25(4), 406-415.

Most employed adults must manage both work and family responsibilities. Consequently, many employees also experience conflict between their roles, which often leads to compromised performance in one or both domains. We examined family interference with work (FIW) as a potential drain on resources leading to increased counterproductive work behaviors (CWB) and decreased organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) in three samples with a multi-measure, timelagged design. Results demonstrated that employees who experience FIW display higher levels of CWB and lower levels of OCB, especially for organizationally targeted behaviors.

A meta-analytic examination of cyberloafing

Mercado, B.K., Giordano, C., & Dilchert, S.
Career Development International, 22(5), 546-564.

Cyberloafing, using technology to idle instead of work, is a particularly concerning issue for many organizations due to its perceived widespread impact on productivity. The purpose of this paper is to meta-analytically examine the growing literature on this construct in order to gain insights into its nomological network and guide future research. After a systematic literature search, the authors conducted psychometric meta-analyses to estimate the relationships of 39 different correlates with cyberloafing. Results indicate that boredom, engagement, and self-control exhibit strong relationships with cyberloafing, but employees’ attitudes surrounding and opportunities to engage in cyberloafing also proved powerful predictors. Contrary to common stereotypes, age and other demographic variables exhibited negligible effects. Employment variables (e.g. tenure, organization level, and income) were also negligibly related to cyberloafing. Emotional stability, conscientiousness, and agreeableness exhibited modest negative relationships with cyberloafing, whereas self-control demonstrated a strong negative relationship. Although cyberloafing strongly correlated with overall counterproductive work behaviors, the findings suggest it is unrelated to other components of job performance. As the first quantitative review of the emerging cyberloafing literature, this study synthesizes related studies from disparate disciplines, examines the nomological network of cyberloafing, and highlights future directions for research into this phenomenon.

Maladaptive personality constructs, measures, and work behaviors: Scientific background and employment practice recommendations

Dilchert, S., Ones, D. S., & Krueger, R. F.
Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 7, 98-110.

Important changes have been occurring in the clinical psychology literature that are relevant to how maladaptive personality characteristics are conceptualized, measured, and used in workplace applications. We aim to clarify distinctions among maladaptive personality traits, measures of maladaptive personality constructs, and their behavioral consequences at work. In pursuing a connection between the industrial–organizational (I–O) and clinical psychology literatures on maladaptive personality, we distinguish maladaptive constructs, maladaptive measures, and maladaptive work behaviors. Conceptual clarification and linguistic precision are essential, as their distinctions are not merely academic but have important consequences for workplace research and practice.


Dilchert, S., & Ones, D. S.
In W. Sarges (Ed.),
Management-Diagnostik (4th ed., pp. 323-332).
Göttingen, Germany: Hogrefe.

Gewissenhaftigkeit umfasst – wie die meisten Konstrukte höherer Ordnung – eine Vielzahl zusammenhängender, aber dennoch konzeptionell unterschiedlicher Facetten. Ziel dieses Kapitels ist es, die Bedeutung des psychologischen Konstrukts, einschließlich seiner wichtigsten Facetten, zu skizzieren und eine Übersicht darüber zu geben, wie es mit dem Arbeitsleben von Managern zusammenhängt.

Counterproductive work behaviors: Concepts, measurement, and nomological network

Ones, D. S., & Dilchert, S.
In K. F. Geisinger, B. A. Bracken, J. F. Carlson, J.-I. C. Hansen, N. R. Kuncel, S. P. Reise, & M. C. Rodriguez (Eds.),
APA handbook of testing and assessment in psychology (pp. 643-659).
Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

The work psychology literature has collectively referred to undesirable employee behaviors as counterproductive work behavior (CWB). In the quest to better understand this construct, this chapter offers a measurement-based, quantitative, psychological perspective. The purpose is to provide an overview of CWB and its measurement in work psychology. To this end, first the construct space for CWB is defined, locating it in models of job performance. Second, competing definitions from the literature and the strengths and weaknesses of each are summarized. Third, both broad measures and specific indicators of the construct and its lower order factor structure are described. Fourth, the reliability of scale scores in this domain is reviewed. Fifth, the measurement of CWB using observer reports is discussed. Sixth, findings on individual-differences correlates of CWB measures from the meta-analytic literature are summarized. The authors also offer some recommendations for better conceptualization and measurement of the CWB construct domain.

A review of citizenship and counterproductive behaviors in organizational decision-making

Hoffman, B. J., & Dilchert, S.
In N. Schmitt (Ed.),
Oxford handbook of personnel assessment and selection (pp. 543–569).
New York: Oxford University Press.

This chapter provides an analysis of historical trends underlying the measurement of two alternative work criterion variables: organizational citizenship and counterproductive work behaviors. Conceptual frameworks and taxonomic models are reviewed, and measurement of the two constructs in research and applied settings is discussed. The empirical evidence that links individual differences predictors and assessment tools to citizenship and counterproductivity is discussed with a focus on employee selection.

Personality tests in the workplace

Ones, D. S. & Dilchert, S.
InTheBlack, 54-55.

We make judgments and evaluations about others’ personalities every day – when we meet new acquaintances, when we catch up with old friends, and even when we interact with our spouses or partners. Personality is important – it describes the general tendencies of individuals to feel, think, act, and react in a variety of life situations. And our work lives, of course, are one of those domains where personality plays a primary role. Organisations have long tried to glean information on individuals’ personalities for a variety of purposes, including career counselling, employee development and coaching, or candidate selection. The method most commonly used to try to learn more about someone’s “character” is the employment interview, and such interviews can be useful when properly designed and applied (especially when they are standardised to minimise the influence of human error and bias).

Cognitive ability predicts objectively measured counterproductive work behaviors

Dilchert, S., Ones, D. S., Davis, R. D., & Rostow, C. D.
Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 616-627.

Over the past 2 decades, increasing attention has been directed at the relationship between individual differences and counterproductive work behaviors (CWB). However, most of this research has focused on personality variables as potential predictors of CWB; surprisingly little research has investigated the link between counterproductivity and cognitive ability. This study presents the first focal investigation of the cognitive ability-CWB relationship. The authors measured organizational and interpersonal CWB using organizational records of formally recorded incidents (e.g., destruction of property, physical violence). In a predictive study, for a large sample of law enforcement job applicants, a standardized psychometric test of cognitive ability predicted CWB, whereas educational attainment did not.

Group differences in detected counterproductivity among law enforcement personnel: Implications for organizational diversity

Dilchert, S., Ones, D. S., Davis, R. D., & Rostow, C. D.
In F. Avallone, H. K. Sinangil, & A. Caetano (Eds.),
Convivence in organizations and society (pp. 203-208).
Milan, Italy: Guerini Studio.

This study reports frequencies of observed counterproductive work behaviors by gender and race in a large sample of law enforcement personnel. Data are reported separately for overall, organizationally targeted, and interpersonal counterproductivity. Results indicate mat gender differences exist (men engaging in CWB more frequently than women), yet all these differences are small. Race differences in observed frequencies of CWB appear negligible. Implications for organizational diversity are discussed.

A review of Giotto

Ones, D. S., & Dilchert, S.
In R. A. Spies & B. S. Plake (Eds.),
Mental measurements yearbook (16th ed., pp. 414-416). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

This review provides information about the development, reliability, and validity of the Giotto integrity test. Giotto is a self-report, paper-and-pencil personality-based integrity test. The developers intended it to be used for selection, promotion, appraisal, and development purposes in work settings. Seven attributes asserted to tap into aspects of the overall integrity construct arc measured: Prudence, Fortitude, Temperance, Justice, Faith, Charity, and Hope…