Wearable Sensors

Methods for detecting probable COVID-19 cases from large-scale survey data also reveal probable sex differences in symptom profiles

Klein, A., Puldon, K., Dilchert, S., Hartogensis, W., Chowdhary, A., Anglo, C., Pandya, L. S., Hecht, F. M., Mason, A. E., & Smarr, B. L.
Frontiers in Big Data, 5.

Daily symptom reporting collected via web-based symptom survey tools holds the potential to improve disease monitoring. Such screening tools might be able to not only discriminate between states of acute illness and non-illness, but also make use of additional demographic information so as to identify how illnesses may differ across groups, such as biological sex. These capabilities may play an important role in the context of future disease outbreaks. We used daily symptom profiles to plot symptom progressions for COVID-19, influenza (flu), and the common cold. We then built a Bayesian network to discriminate between these three illnesses based on daily symptom reports. We identified key symptoms that contributed to a COVID-19 prediction in both males and females using a logistic regression model. Although the Bayesian model performed only moderately well in identifying a COVID-19 diagnosis (71.6% true positive rate), the model showed promise in being able to differentiate between COVID-19, flu, and the common cold, as well as periods of acute illness vs. non-illness. Additionally, COVID-19 symptoms differed between the biological sexes; specifically, fever was amore important symptom in identifying subsequent COVID-19 infection among males than among females.

Detection of COVID-19 using multimodal data from a wearable device: Results from the first TemPredict Study

Mason, A. E., Hecht, F. M., Davis, S. K., Natale, J. L., Hartogensis, W., Damaso, N., Claypool, K. T., Dilchert, S., […] & Smarr, B. L.
Scientific Reports, 12(1), 3463.

Early detection of diseases such as COVID-19 could be a critical tool in reducing disease transmission by helping individuals recognize when they should self-isolate, seek testing, and obtain early medical intervention. Consumer wearable devices that continuously measure physiological metrics hold promise as tools for early illness detection. We gathered daily questionnaire data and physiological data using a consumer wearable (Oura Ring) from 63,153 participants, of whom 704 self-reported possible COVID-19 disease. We selected 73 of these 704 participants with reliable confirmation of COVID-19 by PCR testing and high-quality physiological data for algorithm training to identify onset of COVID-19 using machine learning classification. The algorithm identified COVID-19 an average of 2.75 days before participants sought diagnostic testing with a sensitivity of 82% and specificity of 63%. The receiving operating characteristic (ROC) area under the curve (AUC) was 0.819 (95% CI [0.809, 0.830]). Including continuo s temperature yielded an AUC 4.9% higher than without this feature. For further validation, we obtained SARS CoV-2 antibody in a subset of participants and identified 10 additional participants who self-reported COVID-19 disease with antibody confirmation. The algorithm had an overall ROC AUC of 0.819 (95% CI [0.809, 0.830]), with a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 80% in these additional participants. Finally, we observed substantial variation in accuracy based on age and biological sex. Findings highlight the importance of including temperature assessment, using continuous physiological features for alignment, and including diverse populations in algorithm development to optimize accuracy in COVID-19 detection from wearables.

Metrics from wearable devices as candidate predictors of antibody response following vaccination against COVID-19: Data from the second TemPredict study

Mason, A. E., Kasl, P., Hartogensis, W., Natale, J. L., Dilchert, S., Dasgupta, S., Purawat, S., Chowdhary, A., Anglo, C., Veasna, D., Pandya, L. S., Fox, L. M., Puldon, K. Y., Prather, J. G., Gupta, A., Altintas, I., Smarr, B. L., & Hecht, F. M.
Vaccines, 10(2), 264.

There is significant variability in neutralizing antibody responses (which correlate with immune protection) after COVID-19 vaccination, but only limited information is available about predictors of these responses. We investigated whether device-generated summaries of physiological metrics collected by a wearable device correlated with post-vaccination levels of antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD), the target of neutralizing antibodies generated by existing COVID-19 vaccines. One thousand, one hundred and seventy-nine participants wore an off-the-shelf wearable device (Oura Ring), reported dates of COVID-19 vaccinations, and completed testing for antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 RBD during the U.S. COVID-19 vaccination rollout. We found that on the night immediately following the second mRNA injection (Moderna-NIAID and Pfizer-BioNTech) increases in dermal temperature deviation and resting heart rate, and decreases in heart rate variability (a measure of sympathetic nervous system activati n) and deep sleep were each statistically significantly correlated with greater RBD antibody responses. These associations were stronger in models using metrics adjusted for the pre-vaccination baseline period. Greater temperature deviation emerged as the strongest independent predictor of greater RBD antibody responses in multivariable models. In contrast to data on certain other vaccines, we did not find clear associations between increased sleep surrounding vaccination and antibody responses.

Feasibility of continuous fever monitoring using wearable devices

Smarr, B. L., Aschbacher, K., Fisher, S. M., Chowdhary, A., Dilchert, S., Puldon, K., Rao, A., Hecht, F. M., & Mason, A. E.
Scientific Reports, 10(1), 21640.

Elevated core temperature constitutes an important biomarker for COVID-19 infection; however, no standards currently exist to monitor fever using wearable peripheral temperature sensors. Evidence that sensors could be used to develop fever monitoring capabilities would enable largescale health-monitoring research and provide high-temporal resolution data on fever responses across heterogeneous populations. We launched the TemPredict study in March of 2020 to capture continuous physiological data, including peripheral temperature, from a commercially available wearable device during the novel coronavirus pandemic. We coupled these data with symptom reports and COVID-19 diagnosis data. Here we report findings from the first 50 subjects who reported COVID- 19 infections. These cases provide the first evidence that illness-associated elevations in peripheral temperature are observable using wearable devices and correlate with self-reported fever. Our analyses support the hypothesis that wearable sensors can detec illnesses in the absence of symptom recognition. Finally, these data support the hypothesis that prediction of illness onset is possible using continuously generated physiological data collected by wearable sensors. Our findings should encourage further research into the role of wearable sensors in public health efforts aimed at illness detection, and underscore the importance of integrating temperature sensors into commercially available wearables.

Using mobile sensors to study personality dynamics

Wiernik, B. M., Ones, D. S., Marlin, B. M., Giordano, C., Dilchert, S., Mercado, B. K., Stanek, K. C., Birkland, A., Wang, Y., Ellis, B., Yazar, Y., Kostal, J. W., Kumar, S., Hnat, T., Ertin, E., Sano, A., Ganesan, D. K., Choudhoury, T., & al’Absi, M.
European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 36(6), 935–947.

Research interest in personality dynamics over time is rapidly growing. Passive personality assessment via mobile sensors offers an intriguing new approach for measuring a wide variety of personality dynamics. In this paper, we address the possibility of integrating sensorbased assessments to enhance personality dynamics research. We consider a variety of research designs that can incorporate sensor-based measures and address pitfalls and limitations in terms of psychometrics and practical implementation. We also consider analytic challenges related to data quality and model evaluation that researchers must address when applying machine learning methods to translate sensor data into composite personality assessments.